Part I: A GUIDE TO WRITING EFFECTIVELY.1. Why We Write.Understanding Writing. Writing in College. Writing in the Workplace. Writing as a Citizen. Writing to Understand Ourselves.2. Ten Core Concepts for Effective Writing.Core Concept 1: Writing Is a Process of Discovery and Learning. Core Concept 2: Good Writing Fits the Context. Core Concept 3: The Medium Is Part of the Message. Core Concept 4: A Writer Must Have Something to Say. Core Concept 5: A Writer Must Support Claims and Assertions. Core Concept 6: Purpose Determines Form, Style, and Organization in Writing. Core Concept 7: Writing Is a Social Activity. Core Concept 8: Revision Is an Essential Part of Writing. Core Concept 9: There Is Always a Voice in Writing, Even When There Isn't an I. Core Concept 10: Good Writing Means More Than Good Grammar.3. The Ten Core Concepts in Action.Step 1: Discover and Explore a Topic. Step 2: Examine the Rhetorical Context. Step 3: Select an Appropriate Medium. Step 4: Have Something to Say. Step 5: Back Up What You Say. Step 6: Establish a Form and Structure for Your Project. Step 7: Get Feedback. Step 8: Revise. Step 9: Strengthen Your Voice. Step 10: Make It Correct.4. A Student Writer Applies the Core Concepts.Step 1: Discover and Explore a Topic. Step 2: Examine the Rhetorical Context. Step 3: Select an Appropriate Medium. Step 4: Have Something to Say. Step 5: Back Up What You Say. Step 6: Establish a Form and Structure for Your Project. Step 7: Get Feedback. Step 8: Revise. Step 9: Strengthen Your Voice. Step 10: Make It Correct. Chloe Charles' Final Draft: "Why Is College So Important in the United States?"Part II: WRITING TO ANALYZE.5. Understanding Analytical Writing.Occasions for Analytical Writing. Understanding Analytical Writing in College. Doing Analysis. Features of Analytical Writing. "Why Mothers and Daughters Tangle Over Hair," by Deborah Tannen.6. Examining Causes and Effects.Occasions for Causal Analysis. Understanding Causal Analysis. Reading Causal Analysis. "The Flight From Conversation," by Sherry Turkle. "Everyone's Gone Nuts: The Exaggerated Threat of Food Allergies," by Meredith Broussard. "The Reign of Recycling," by John Tierney. Writing Causal Analysis. Writing Projects.7. Comparing and Synthesizing.Occasions for Comparing and Synthesizing. Understanding Comparison and Synthesis. Reading Comparative Analysis. "Move Over, Millennials, Here Comes Generation Z," by Alex Williams. "The Whole Truth," by Julian Baggini. "Sherlock Holmes Can Teach You to Multitask," by Maria Konnikova. Writing Analysis Involving Comparison and Synthesis. Writing Projects.8. Conducting Rhetorical Analysis.Occasions for Rhetorical Analysis. Understanding Rhetorical Analysis. Using Classical Rhetorical Theory for Rhetorical Analysis. Analyzing Images. Reading Rhetorical Analysis. "Obama's Graceful Pause in Charleston," by Peter Manseau. "Rhetorical Analysis of a National Health Service of England Public Service Advertisement." "A Rhetorical Analysis of the Declaration of Independence: Persuasive Appeals and Language," by Jim Stover. Writing Rhetorical Analysis. Writing Projects.9. Analyzing Literary Texts.Occasions for Analyzing Texts. Understanding Textual Analysis. Reading Textual Analysis. "Literary Analysis of 'Hills Like White Elephants,''' by Diane Andrews Henningfeld. "Dangerous Illusions," by Caetlin Benson-Allott. "Watchmen and the Birth of Respect for Graphic Novels," by Karl Allen. Writing Textual Analysis. Writing Projects.10. Evaluating and Reviewing.Occasions for Evaluating and Reviewing. Understanding Reviews and Evaluation. Reading Reviews. "What We Owe the MythBusters," by James B. Meigs. "Review of Destiny," by Trace C. Schuelke. "Review of Thirteen Reasons Why by Jay Asher," by Bryan Gillis. Writing Reviews. Writing Projects.Part III: WRITING TO PERSUADE.11. Understanding Argument.Occasions for Argument. Understanding Argument in College. Making Arguments. Developing a Main Argument. Considering the Rhetorical Situation. Making a Persuasive Appeal. Appraising and Using Evidence. Structuring an Argument. Features of Argument. "Why N.C.A.A. Athletes Shouldn't Be Paid," by Ekow N. Yankah.12. Making Academic Arguments.Occasions for Academic Argumentation. Understanding Academic Argument: A Case Study. Reading Academic Arguments. "Crime and Punishment," by Bruce Western. "Fulfilling Her Mother's Dream," by Patricia McGuire. "Mark Zuckerberg's Theory of Privacy," by Michael Zimmer. Writing Academic Arguments. Writing Projects.13. Making Arguments in Public Discourse.Occasions for Public Argument. Understanding Argument in Public Discourse. Reading Public Arguments. "Trigger Warnings Don't Hinder Freedom of Expression: They Expand It," by Lindy West. "American Wind Power," by American Wind Energy Association. "The Problem With Affirmative Consent," by Alyssa Imam. Writing Arguments in Public Contexts. Writing Projects.14. Presenting a Proposal.Occasions for Writing Proposals. Understanding Proposals. Reading Proposals. "University of California Student Investment Proposal," by Fix UC. "Puppies Behind Bars," by Anne Teillon. "Proposal to Reduce the National Drinking Age," by Choose Responsibility. Writing Proposals. Writing Projects.Part IV: WRITING TO NARRATE AND INFORM.15. Understanding Narrative Writing.Occasions for Narrative Writing. Understanding Narrative Writing in College. "Playing the Odds," by Amy Monticello. Telling Stories. Maintaining Focus. Structuring a Narrative. Writing Purposeful Description. Showing and Telling. Features of Narrative. "The Art of Butchery," by Amanda Giracca.16. Writing Personal Narratives.Occasions for Personal Narrative. "$110,000 in Debt," by Jenna Levine. Understanding Personal Narrative. Reading Personal Narrative. "The Balancing Act," by Haley Lee. "Some Thoughts on Mercy," by Ross Gay. "Red Boat, Blue Sky," by Edmund Jones. Writing Personal Narratives. Writing Projects.17. Writing Informative Essays.Occasions for Informative Writing. Understanding Informative Writing. Reading Informative Writing. "Sculpting Identity: A History of the Nose Job," by Tiffany Hearsay. "Gamification: How Competition Is Reinventing Business, Marketing, and Everyday Life," by Jennifer Van Grove. "What Honeybees Can Teach Us About Gang-Related Violence," by Emily Badger. Writing Informative Essays. Writing Projects.18. Digital Storytelling.Occasions for Digital Storytelling. Understanding Digital Stories. "Good Will," by Christi Clancy. Managing the Technical Components of a Digital Story. Reading Digital Stories. "Mountain of Stories," by Mazbah Tom. "Common Ground," by Scott Strazzante. Composing Digital Stories. Writing Projects.Part V: ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR CONTEMPORARY WRITERS.19. Working with Ideas and Information.Understanding Academic Writing as Conversation. A Strategy for Reading Academic Texts. Summarizing and Paraphrasing. Synthesizing. Writing Summary-and-Response Essays. "The Dynamics of Internet Addiction," by Avery Brahaum. Writing Projects.20. Designing Documents.Understanding Document Design as a Rhetorical Tool. Principles of Document Design. Working with Visual Elements. Designing Documents: Three Sample Projects.21. Finding Source Material.Understanding Research. Determining What You Need. Understanding Sources. Locating the Right Sources. Developing a Search Strategy.22. Evaluating Sources.Determining Whether a Source Is Trustworthy. Credibility. Reliability. Understanding Bias. Evaluating Source Material for Your Rhetorical Purposes.23. Using Source Material.Quoting from Sources. Additional Guidelines for Quoting from Sources. Avoiding Plagiarism.24. Citing Sources Using MLA Style.Two Main Components in MLA Style. Creating In-Text Citations in MLA Style. Creating a Works Cited List in MLA Style. Sample MLA-Style Research Paper. “Anxieties Over Electracy,” by Matt Searle.25. Citing Sources Using APA Style.Two Main Components in APA Style. Creating In-Text Citations in APA Style. Creating a References List in APA Style. Sample APA-Style Research Paper. “The Generations That Influence Technology,” by Duncan Gelder.26. Composing with Style.Developing an Academic Writing Style. Writing Paragraphs. Framing. Introductions. Transitions.27. Avoiding Common Problems in Grammar and Usage.Strategies for Avoiding Errors. Coordination, Subordination, and Parallelism. Common Sentence-Level Problems. Common Pronoun Errors. Word Choice and Style. Common Punctuation Errors.